The history of checkers can be traced to the very cradle of civilization, where vestiges of the earliest form of the game was unearthed in an archeological dig in the ancient city of Ur in southern Mesopotamia, which is now modern day Iraq. Using a slightly different board, no one is sure of the exact rules of the game which was carbon dated at B. A similar game using a 5×5 board, called Alquerque is known to have existed in ancient Egypt as far back as B. This Egyptian version was so popular that man played it for thousands of years. Then, in the year A. This modified game was then called “Fierges” or “Ferses,” but it was more appropriately called as “Le Jeu Plaisant De Dames,” because it was considered a women’s social game. Later, the game was made more challenging by making jumps mandatory and so, this newer version was referred to as “Jeu Force. Now, with its own written rules, the game settled in England where it was known as “Draughts” and in America where it was called “Checkers. Later, game enthusiasts noticed that certain openings gave advantage to one side.
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Iraq War; Part of the Iraqi conflict and the War on Terror: Clockwise from top: U.S. troops at Uday and Qusay Hussein’s hideout; insurgents in northern Iraq; an Iraqi insurgent firing a MANPADS; the toppling of the Saddam Hussein statue in Firdos Square.
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February 22, – ISIS releases a video that appears to show at least 21 Kurdish Peshmerga fighters in cages carried down Iraqi streets. He had been accused of being gay. There are at least a half dozen documented cases of ISIS killing men accused of being gay. All but one are from a group of Assyrians captured in northern Syria. March 12, – Iraqi forces retake most of Tikrit. April 1, – Iraqi forces, aided by Shiite militiamen, take full control of Tikrit.
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US, Iraq say ISIS blew up famous Mosul mosque
Here, through such ancient lands as Sumer, Akkad, Babylonia and Assyria that the vital cultural brew was stirred, the quite remarkable concoction from which Western civilization would emerge. Ancient miracles were bulldozed to build a military helicopter landing pad. War crimes of enormity.
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Iraq Table of Contents Kinship groups are the fundamental social units, regulating many activities that in Westernized societies are the functions of political, economic, religious, or neighborhood groups. Rights and obligations center on the extended family and the lineage. The family remains the primary focus of loyalty; and it is in this context, rather than the broader one of corporate loyalties defined by sectarian, ethnic, or economic considerations, that the majority of Iraqis find the common denominators of their everyday lives.
A mutually protective attitude among relatives is taken as a matter of course. Relatives tend to be preferred as business partners since they are believed to be more reliable than persons over whom one does not have the hold of kinship ties. On higher levels, deeply ingrained family loyalty manifests itself in business and public life. The characteristic form of family organization involves a large group of kinsmen related to one another through descent and marriage, that is, an extended family usually consisting of three generations.
Such an extended family may all live together, which is the more traditional pattern, or may reside separately like a nuclear family, but still share the values and functions of an extended family, such as depending upon one another and deferring to the older generation.
Ancient Assyrian Tomb with 10 Skeletons Discovered in Iraq
Debates on new Iraqi oil contracts center around the region and its practices, and the neighboring countries of Turkey and Iran periodically treat the region as a battleground, with little regard for its inhabitants. Perhaps precisely because Iraqi Kurdistan is a semi-independent autonomous area and not a fully independent state in its own right, the region presents many debates and conflicts with few clear cut answers. Countries in the world, highlighted in red, where polygamy is accepted and legal.
Many see laws addressing polygamy as a barometer of where lawmakers stand on a spectrum of religious versus secular, or even modern versus traditional. Such a view is rather simplistic, but not completely lacking in merit. Indeed, Iraqi Kurdish lawmakers have directly addressed the issue of polygamy and they have set forth a unique law addressing the issue, providing a solution that some see as a compromise of sorts on the issue.
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See Article History Alternative Title: From its original site on the western bank of the Tigris River , the modern city expanded to the eastern bank and now encircles the ruins of the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh. Probably built on the site of an earlier Assyrian fortress, Mosul succeeded Nineveh as the Tigris bridgehead of the road that linked Syria and Anatolia with Persia.
By the 8th century ce it had become the principal city of northern Mesopotamia. The Ottoman Turks ruled the region from to , during which time Mosul became a trade centre of the Ottoman Empire and the headquarters of a political subdivision. Mosul has since grown more prosperous, with increased trade and the development of important oil fields nearby to the east and north. There is a refinery in the city. Mosul was once famous for its fine cotton goods; it is now a centre of cement, textile, sugar, and other industries and a marketplace for agricultural products.
The city has road and rail connections with Baghdad and other Iraqi cities and with nearby Syria and Turkey, and it has an airport. Mosul brass ewer, c. Mosul contains many ancient buildings, some dating from the 13th century. George , several Christian churches, and various Muslim shrines and mausoleums.
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Tales of a land he knew before he left in as an 18 year-old, when Iraq was not yet besieged by war, Jews held positions of power in the government, and friends from a rainbow of religions lived together in harmony. Sweet Dates in Basra brilliantly captures the atmosphere of a volatile Middle East during the previous century and pays tribute to the lost traditions of a once-idyllic world. It is the redemptive story of two very different cultures and a powerful reminder that no walls can confine the human spirit.
Shafiq is a Jewish boy whose brotherhood with his Muslim neighbor Omar proves that religion is no barrier to friendship. Kathmiya Mahmoud is a young Marsh Arab maiden of the age when her family should be arranging her marriage, but instead they send her to work as a servant in the city of Basra. In this lost Iraq of the s, a time of rich traditions and converging worlds, Kathmiya meets Shafiq.
Geographic The photo on the right is of typical young girls one sees in every American city. Happy, carefree, and reveling in their youth. The photo on the left is from the cover of National Geographic Magazine in and the unhappy almost angry face belongs to Sharbat Gula, an Afghan girl of perhaps 13 or even 15 years of age back then. Shortly after this picture was taken she was married by arrangement to Rahmat Gul and has been unhappily in denial ever since. I say in denial, because she believes that the plum-colored burka she presently covers herself with “is a beautiful thing to wear, not a curse.
Now, 24 years later, her days are still empty of joy: She fetches water from the stream. She cooks, cleans, does laundry. She cares for her three children. She has not known one happy day in her life except perhaps the day she was married when she was treated well; that is to say, she didn’t have to fetch water. However, Azhma is not in denial. In Sunday’s Washington Post 1 she writes that she finds “unbearable the thought of what will happen to the women of my country if it once again falls under the control of the insurgents and militants who now threaten it.
US, Iraq say ISIS blew up famous Mosul mosque
Lara Logan is the correspondent. There are few places on earth where Christianity is as old as it is in Iraq. Christians there trace their history to the first century apostles. But today, their existence has been threatened by the terrorist group that calls itself Islamic State. More than , Christians — men, women and children — have been forced from their homes over the last 10 months.
From there, it pushed into the neighboring villages and towns across this region, known as the Nineveh Plains, a vast area that’s been home to Christians since the first century after Christ.
Scammers are increasingly creating fake profiles on social media and dating websites, pretending to be Soldiers. Army Criminal Investigation Command are once again warning the American public, as well as citizens from other nations, to be extra vigilant and not to fall prey to Internet scams or impersonation fraud — especially scams that promise true love, but only end up breaking hearts and bank accounts.
CID continues to receive hundreds of reports of various scams involving persons pretending to be U. The victims are most often unsuspecting women, 30 to 55 years old, who think they are romantically involved on the Internet with an American Soldier, when in fact they are being cyber-robbed by perpetrators thousands of miles away. The criminals are pretending to be U. The perpetrators will often take the true rank and name of a U. Soldier who is honorably serving his country somewhere in the world, marry that up with some photographs of a Soldier off the Internet, and then build a false identity to begin prowling the Internet for victims.
The scams often involve carefully worded romantic requests for money from the victim to purchase special laptop computers, international telephones, military leave papers, and transportation fees to be used by the fictitious “deployed Soldier” so their false relationship can continue. The scams include asking the victim to send money, often thousands of dollars at a time, to a third party address.
Once victims are hooked, the criminals continue their ruse. These scams are outright theft and are a grave misrepresentation of the U. Army and the tremendous amount of support programs and mechanisms that exist for Soldiers today, especially those serving overseas, said Grey. Army CID is warning people once again to be very suspicious if they begin a relationship on the Internet with someone claiming to be an American Soldier and within a matter of weeks, the alleged Soldier is asking for money, as well as their hand in marriage.
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Pre-historic era. Between 65, BC and 35, BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is also the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from approximately 11, BC.. Since approximately 10, BC, Iraq (alongside Asia Minor and The Levant) was one of centres of a .
Victory stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad. Bronze Age In the 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash created what was perhaps the first empire in history, though this was short-lived. Later, Lugal-Zage-Si , the priest-king of Umma , overthrew the primacy of the Lagash dynasty in the area, then conquered Uruk , making it his capital, and claimed an empire extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean.
From the 29th century BC, Akkadian Semitic names began to appear on king lists and administrative documents of various city states. It remains unknown as to the origin of Akkad, where it was precisely situated and how it rose to prominence. Its people spoke Akkadian , an East Semitic language. The influences between Sumerian and Akkadian are evident in all areas, including lexical borrowing on a massive scale—and syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. This mutual influence has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian of the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund.
Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak , Sumerian tablet, circa BC.